Gardnerellosis or bacterial vaginosis is an urogenital infection caused by uncontrolled propagation of the conditionally pathogenic gardnerella bacterium , when the amount of pathogenic microflora begins to prevail over normal vaginal microflora. Gardnerella ( Gardnerella vaginalis ) is an optional anaerobic, which is constantly in a small amount in the microflora of the vagina of women. That is, gardnerella is a conditionally pathogenic microorganism. In a small amount, it does not cause significant harm to the body. Both men and women suffer from gardnerellosis In the male body of gardnerella usually remain in only 10 % of cases, and then asymptomatic carriage of gardnerella occurs , which makes it a source of the spread of gardnerella . Sometimes gardnerella can cause men urethritis, cystitis. Gardnerellosis almost always accompanies such urogenital infections as mycoplasmosis, chlamydia, candidiasis and even gonorrhea. Often for a long time asymptomatic carriage of the gardnerella occurs .

Normally, in women , normal in the vagina is an acidic environment caused by lactobacilli , which make up 95-98% of the entire vaginal microflora. With the development of gardnerellosis, bacteria begin to actively multiply in the microflora of the vagina and urethra, quickly destroying the normal microflora. Gardnerella begins to multiply intensively with a decrease in immunity, concomitant diseases, infections, stress, hypothermia, etc. And then lactobacilli are replaced by a large number of gardnerella . Gardnerella, in the course of her life, is able to produce special substances that turn the acidic environment of the vagina in women into alkaline. This leads to inflammation, lower protective barriers, local immunity, which creates a favorable environment for accession, reproduction and other pathogenic microorganisms. 
Causes of gardnerellosis .
The normal microflora of the vagina can change for some reason: 

Causes of gardnerellosis .
The normal microflora of the vagina can change for some reason: 

  • with infections 
  • hormonal disorders 
  • gynecological interventions, 
  • the use of an intrauterine device, contraceptives 
  • after childbirth,  
  • frequent change of partners, 
  • inappropriate use of antibiotics, 
  • stress, severe physical exertion, 
  • pregnancy.

Symptoms of gardnerelosis .

Now 2 variants of the clinical course of BV are distinguished : asymptomatic, with clinical symptoms. With an asymptomatic course, there are no clinical manifestations of the disease along with positive laboratory signs. With clinical symptoms it is characterized by: prolonged (on average 2-3 years), plentiful, liquid, milky or gray discharge, mainly with an unpleasant smell of “rotten fish”; a frequent combination with pathological processes of the cervix; recurrent course. Patients complain of moderate or heavy discharge from the genital tract of white or gray color, often with an unpleasant odor, especially after intercourse or during menstruation. These symptoms can last for years. With a progressive process, the discharge acquires a yellowish-greenish color, becomes thicker, has the property of foaming, slightly viscous and sticky, evenly distributed along the walls of the vagina. The amount of leucorrhoea varies from moderate to very plentiful. Some women may experience discomfort during intercourse, mild itching, or burning. Gardnerellosis is often found in diseases such as colpitis , ectopia of the cervix, less commonly leukoplakia, cervicitis, adnexitis, cystitis and pyelonephritis, endometriosis . The situation is complicated by the fact that inflammation is almost asymptomatic and is detected when the inflammatory process causes changes in the structure of tissues. During pregnancy, the immunity is physiologically reduced, and against this background, the development of a massive lesion of the female urogenital system by the gardnerella is possible . Gardenerellosis can lead to miscarriage , premature birth, low birth weight, and complicated birth. 


  • Bacterioscopic examination A smear of secretions,
  • Identification of “key” cells with gardnerella on their surface by microscopic examination of Gram stained smears ,     
  • Bacteriological culture of vaginal discharge,
  • Polymerase chain reaction – PCR diagnostics.

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