Fetal Ovarian Carcinoma

Embryonic carcinoma is a very rare malignant ovarian tumor, considered the least differentiated germinogenic ovarian tumor. The age of patients is from 4 to 28 years, in half of cases it occurs in the puberty period. The tumor is usually one-sided, characterized by rapid growth, frequent relapses. Macroscopically, it looks like a tuberous knot of soft consistency, microscopically, the structure is identical to that of anaplastic teratoma. Often accompanied by a massive adhesive process in the pelvis, seeding of the peritoneum, hematogenous and lymphogenous metastases. Clinically manifested by irregular menstruation, amenorrhea, hirsutism. Often combined with other germinogenic tumors, especially with a yolk sac tumor. With laparotomy in 40% of cases, dissemination in the abdominal cavity is noted. The tumor produces AFP and, somewhat less frequently, CG, which is used in monitoring patients. Unilateral removal of the ovary affected by the tumor increases the risk of death. Without adjuvant chemotherapy at stage 1, survival is only 50%. In this regard, radical surgery is required followed by chemotherapy according to the schemes PVB, BEP, EB, VIP, JEV.

Mesonephroid (clear cell) ovarian cancer

Mesonephroid (light lung) cancer is rare – 5-10% of all malignant ovarian tumors, mainly aged 50 to 70 years. 2/3 of women have a history of infertility. In 50-70% of cases, it is associated with endometriosis and paraendocrine hypercalcemia. Tumors are often one-sided, their sizes are diverse. Macroscopically: without papillary growths on the surface, in the section, they have either a solid, then a nostril structure, then a large or small cystic. Microscopically, tumors consist of light cells that contain glycogen and are similar to elements of renal cell carcinoma and / or cells in the form of “wallpaper nail”, lining small cysts and tubes. Often in cysts and tubes find an accumulation of mucin, which is absent inside the cells. The clinical course of mesonephroid cancer is extremely malignant. Its low sensitivity to drug and radiation therapy is noted. Relapses that occur quickly lead to death. 

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