Herpes (Greek – creeping, spreading skin disease) – a viral disease with a characteristic rash of grouped bubbles on the skin and mucous membranes.
The virus most often affects:
- skin, eyes (conjunctivitis, keratitis),
- external genitals
In severe cases, the disease may damage the central nervous system with the development of meningitis and encephalitis.
The development of the disease contribute to buy valtrex online, reducing body resistance. Herpes is possible in hot time when the body is overheated.
In humans, there are 8 types of herpes viruses:
- Herpes simplex virus type 1 – causes herpes simplex, which causes bubbles on the lips (“cold”).
- Herpes simplex virus type 2 causes genital herpes, in most cases causing genital problems.
- Varicella-zoster virus – causes varicella (chickenpox) and shingles (herpes zoster), a type 3 virus.
- Epstein-Barr virus causes infectious mononucleosis, a type 4 virus.
- Cytomegalovirus – causes cytomegalovirus infection, virus type 5.
The meaning of 6, 7 and 8 types is not completely clear. They are thought to play a role in chronic fatigue syndrome, the appearance of a sudden rash.
Herpes simplex is a group of crowded blisters with transparent contents on an inflamed base. Herpes is preceded by itching, burning of the skin, sometimes chills, malaise.
Shingles – is characterized by pain along the nerve, headache. After a few days, a rash appears in the area of the skin along the nerve in the form of grouped vesicles, first with transparent and later purulent bloody contents. Lymph nodes increase, body temperature rises, the general condition is disturbed. Neuralgic pains can last up to several months.
The herpes virus is transmitted by direct contact, as well as through household items. According to the WHO (World Health Organization), herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is transmitted mainly through oral contact and causes oral herpes infection due to contact with the HSV-1 virus in colds, saliva and on surfaces in the mouth or around the mouth . However, due to oral-genital contact, HSV-1 can also get into the genital area and cause genital herpes. WHO does not report any other modes of transmission (HSV-1).
Airborne transmission is also possible. Herpes penetrates through the mucous membranes of the mouth, upper respiratory tract and genital organs. Overcoming tissue barriers, the virus enters the blood and lymph. Then enters the various internal organs.
The virus penetrates the sensory nerve endings and is integrated into the genetic apparatus of the nerve cells. After that, it is impossible to remove the virus from the body, it will remain with the person for life. The immune system reacts to the penetration of herpes by producing specific antibodies that block viral particles circulating in the blood. Characterized by the awakening of infection in the cold season, with colds, hypovitaminosis. Reproduction of herpes in the epithelial cells of the skin and mucous membranes leads to the development of dystrophy and cell death.
According to researchers at Columbia University, herpes is a stimulating factor for the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Later, these data were independently confirmed by researchers from the University of Manchester. Earlier, the same group of researchers led by Ruth Yitzhaki proved that herpes simplex virus is found in the brain of almost 70% of Alzheimer’s patients. In addition, they confirmed that upon infection with a virus of the culture of brain cells, there is a significant increase in the level of beta-amyloid, from which plaques form. During the last study, scientists were able to find out that 90% of the plaques in the brain of Alzheimer’s patients contain herpes simplex DNA – HSV-1.
Pulsed Herpes Labial Therapy
Currently, more than 100 members of the herpesvirus family are described, among which 8 different types of human herpes virus are known. The most common of these are type 1 herpes simplex virus and in many ways the type 2 herpes simplex virus is very close to it. As a result, infection of a person with a type 1 virus usually results in various lesions of the skin of the face and upper extremities. Herpes simplex virus is transmitted mainly by contact. The conductor of infection is most often saliva. Herpes virus infection, once in the body, as a rule, it does not leave. Herpes virus type 1 is stored in the ganglia of the trigeminal nerve.
Modern medicine does not have methods of treatment that completely remove the herpes simplex virus from the human body, but there is a real opportunity to suppress the activity of the virus and thereby reduce the number of relapses, their severity and increase the interrecurrent period. For a long time, it was believed that the most effective means of treating herpes sores is the local use of acyclovir. However, the cream is known to have an effect only on the superficial layers of the skin, without penetrating into the nerve ganglia. Therefore, the timely use of a tablet form of a drug that can suppress the reproduction of the virus throughout the body is a priority in the treatment of labial herpes.
Currently, oral antiherpetic drug from the group of nucleoside analogues – valaciclovir (Valtrex) is the most effective and safe means of treating herpes viral infection. The molecule of valacyclovir is activated by the action of the herpes virus virus thymidine kinase and accumulates only in cells infected with the herpes virus. In addition to the traditional treatment of orofacial herpes (500 mg twice a day for 5 days), Valtrex is also used as an episodic or long-term suppressive therapy (500 mg per day for several weeks) of a herpes viral infection. At the same time, episodic suppressive therapy with Valtrex is aimed at preventing relapse with a known trigger (for example, 500 mg per day for 3-5 days before applying permanent makeup in cosmetology), and long-term suppressive therapy with this drug effectively reduces the risk of herpes recurrence.
Since January 2005, a new course of treating cold sores has been included in the instructions for use of Valtrex – 4 tablets in the morning and 4 tablets in the evening just one day. This course of therapy is called the one-day “impulse” therapy of labial herpes.
The aim of the study was to study the effectiveness of the use of Valtrex, as a one-day “impulse” therapy of labial herpes.
Under supervision there were 48 people (27 men and 21 women) aged from 24 to 48 years with a diagnosis of labial herpes. All patients received one-day “impulse” therapy with Valtrex (2 g in the morning and 2 g in the evening after a meal). The study group included patients who consulted only on the first day of the clinical manifestations of herpes virus infection. The diagnosis of labial herpes in all cases was confirmed by the presence of type 1 herpes simplex virus by PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The clinical efficacy of the “impulse” therapy of labial herpes was evaluated according to the results of repeated visits to the dermatologist on the 2nd and 4th days after the end of treatment.
The majority of patients (98%) noted the absence of the appearance of new elements, the cessation of itching and burning in the places of localization of vesicles and the regression of existing lesions already on the 2nd day after treatment. On the 4th day after one-day therapy, 52% of cases at the site of localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 remained an insignificant part of manifestations in the form of hyperpigmentation, and in other cases (48%) a complete regression of the existing manifestations of labial herpes was noted. Side effects were reported in 10.5% of cases (headache, nausea and epigastric discomfort). Almost all patients noted high clinical efficacy and convenience of one-day “impulse” therapy of labial herpes.
Thus, the timely appointment of Valtrex can significantly reduce the development of clinical manifestations and reduce the risk of transmission of herpes viral infection. Undoubtedly, an important advantage in the one-day course of treatment is the prevention of the further development and progression of the pathological process, which significantly improves the patient’s well-being, quality of life of the patient and self-assessment of his appearance (especially for women).
Why is Herpes Dangerous?
Herpes viruses are extremely widespread in nature and among people. This is largely due to high contagion and easy transmission of the virus. At room temperature, the virus can remain active for up to a day.
Infection occurs through the entry of virus particles on the mucous membranes (mouth, nose, eyes, genitals) from a sick person. Children have enough contact with intact skin.
Having penetrated into the body, the virus migrates along the nerve endings to the nerve cells (neurons), where it is hidden until favorable conditions. As soon as the immune defense decreases, it begins to multiply and causes the characteristic symptoms for herpes.
Herpes on the lips
Herpes on the lips and face is caused mainly by the first type of virus (HSV-1) and sometimes the second, transmitted through droplets of saliva by close contact. Symptoms of herpes usually appear as finely bubble rashes filled with turbid liquid. They itch and hurt a lot, touching them is very painful.
The cause of genital herpes in most cases is the second type of herpes virus, which causes a rash on the genitals in men and women. It is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person through sexual protection. The symptoms of genital herpes are almost identical to those on the lips, with the exception of the location of the bubbles.
The first and second type of viruses are united under the common name “herpes simplex virus”, since they can cross-affect the characteristic areas of each other: the face and genitals, if accidentally hit on the appropriate places.
In addition to the lips, herpes simplex can spread further and cause inflammation of the oral mucosa – stomatitis, which very often causes herpes in children. Herpetic stomatitis can turn into herpetic sore throat. In newborns, the virus can cause damage to the eyes and even the brain (herpes meningitis).
Herpes on the Body (Shingles)
Caused by a third type of virus – the same as chickenpox in children. Chickenpox is the primary response to virus penetration. After the acute stage of herpes, the disease turns into chronic herpes, while the virus lurks in nerve cells for several decades, after which, for reasons unknown so far, herpes is activated and causes shingles in some people. Signs of herpes zoster are rashes on the chest, on the one hand, along the ribs, in rare cases on the neck. They are accompanied by severe pain, which in some cases remains for a long time (herpes neuralgia). Less commonly, the virus affects the optic nerves, and then signs of a herpes eruption appear in the eye area. This is one of the most serious forms of the disease.
Other types of herpes viruses can cause lymphoma (type 4), infectious mononucleosis (type 5), children’s roseol (type 6), Kaposi’s sarcoma (type 8). With herpes virus type 7, chronic fatigue syndrome is associated.
Currently, there is no guaranteed cure for herpes. There are, however, drugs that, when regularly taken, are able to effectively suppress the symptoms of infection with the virus, its reproduction and development (that is, improve the quality of life of the patient):
- Acyclovir (Zovirax and numerous generics). Antiviral drug that prevents the reproduction of the virus in the cells. Dosage form – tablets, ointment, cream and injection. Relatively cheap, effective for most patients.
- Valaciclovir (Valtrex). It differs from acyclovir not only by the delivery method, but also has a greater [source not specified 979 days] efficiency. In most cases, it completely suppresses the symptoms of the virus and its biological activity, blocks its reproduction and, with a high probability, prevents the transmission of the virus to other partners during contact. Currently, in the West, this drug, along with penciclovir, is the main treatment for herpes.
- Famciclovir (Famvir). Penciclovir oral form. Effective against strains of the virus Herpes zoster and Herpes simplex (including resistant to acyclovir and having an altered DNA polymerase). The principle of action is similar to acyclovir and valacyclovir. It has high efficiency.
- Docosanol (Erazaban, Herpanit). Polyatomic saturated alcohol, contained in the composition of policosanol. Used in the cosmetic industry as a softener and emulsifier. It also has antiviral properties, and its effectiveness was confirmed by FDA placebo-controlled studies in 2000.
- Tromantadine. Antiviral agent for external use. Active against viruses Herpes simplex type 1 and type 2, Herpes zoster. Inhibits adsorption and penetration of viruses into the cell.
- Vitagerpavac. Vaccine containing specific inactivated antigens of herpes simplex virus (HSV) Ι and ΙΙ serotypes obtained by reproduction in culture of transplantable Vero B cells after the end of vaccination.
- Allokin-alpha is most similar to α-interferon in the nature of its pharmacological action. Lyophilized powder or porous mass of white. The drug is administered subcutaneously. It is recommended to begin treatment of chronic recurrent herpes 1 and 2 types when the first signs of the disease appear. The mechanism of action of the drug is unknown, outside of the Russian Federation Allokin-alpha is unknown, clinical trials confirming the effectiveness of the drug, was not carried out.
Encouraging results have been demonstrated in the treatment of Vero cells and animals from herpes viruses of type 1 (herpes simplex virus, HSV-1), type 4 (Epstein-Barr virus, EBV) and type 5 (human cytomegalovirus, HCMV) using the CRISPR / Cas9 method. For some parts of their DNA, RNA targeting molecules have been created, thanks to which Cas9 nucleases are able to recognize them in the host genome and cut them. Experiments have shown that a cut in one section of viral DNA reduces the number of infected cells approximately by half, and two cuts lead to almost complete removal of viruses.
American researchers from the University of California at San Francisco discovered one of the mechanisms that the herpes virus uses for reproduction in human cells, and found out how it can be used to create a vaccine, a PNAS journal article reported. Noah Vardi and his colleagues uncovered an unusual mechanism that herpes and similar pathogens are used to start the self-reproduction process in infected cells, watching how its closest relative, the cytomegalovirus, “breaks through” cellular defense systems that prevent viruses from replicating themselves.
Occurrence of relapses
The virus, after the suppression of the active stage, remains in the nerve ganglia, exists there latently and for a long time can not produce itself. In this phase, new viruses are not produced. The causes of relapse are not precisely established, but there are known factors that provoke the development and recurrence of the virus:
- changes in the immune system of women before, after and during menstruation;
- ARVI infection, influenza and other diseases associated with high fever;
- local damage to the lips or eyes;
- side effects of radiation therapy;
- strong, cold wind;
- exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
With relapses, the level of IgG and IgM antibodies is elevated.
Prevention of Genital Herpes
- Condoms Efficiency is high, but it should be remembered that it is less than 100%, since the transmission of the virus can also be carried out through the areas of the mucous membranes and skin (especially if there are microcracks and damage on it) that are not covered by a condom.
- Antiseptic agents (Miramistin and the like), which should be used to treat areas to which the virus could have entered. The degree of effectiveness is difficult to determine.
How to treat Herpes on the Face and Genitals?
In order to cure herpes on the face or genitals, in most cases it is enough to use ointment with acyclovir or its analogs. If you do it on time, even before the appearance of large bubbles, you can cope with the disease at home.
How to treat severe rashes?
If the rash is very strong, spread over a large area, accompanied by temperature, then it is better to call a doctor. After examining you, he will tell you how to treat herpes, for example, prescribe taking acyclovir tablets. In some particularly severe cases (for example, herpes meningitis), acyclovir can be used to treat herpes intravenously. However, remember that long-term use of these drugs inside (more than 10 days) may adversely affect the liver and should be carried out only under the supervision of a physician.
How to prevent Secondary Bacterial Infection?
With abundant rashes, there is sometimes a risk of secondary bacterial infection in the ulcers. To prevent this, it is necessary to treat the skin in places of eruptions with any antiseptic solution: brilliant green, chlorhexidine, miramistin, etc.
Why is it Important to Strengthen the Immune System?
Strengthening immunity – the second way to get rid of herpes. It is appropriate in that period when there are no acute manifestations (bubbles) and will help reduce the number of exacerbations of chronic herpes, but not completely eliminate the virus.
Herpes in Children
Herpes in infants necessarily requires a pediatrician call, because only the doctor knows how to treat herpes in each case. For a young child, this is a pretty serious illness. A child may become infected by its parents. Therefore, if you have an aggravation of herpes and rashes on the lips, do your best not to infect the baby (see herpes simplex prevention). Genital herpes can be transmitted to the child from the mother during labor, if at that time she has a rash on the genitals.
Herpes simplex can cause in children not only a rash on the face, but also stomatitis (up to 80% of all stomatitis in children is caused by this virus), sore throat, pneumonia and meningitis. All of these are dangerous diseases for the baby. In addition to the first and second types of virus, children can affect the third type (chickenpox) and the sixth type (pediatric roseola).