Prostate adenoma (benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH) is a benign tumor resulting from proliferation of prostate tissue. She is one of the most common diseases of the genitourinary sphere in men.
The prostate gland is a small glandular-muscular organ that is located in the pelvis under the bladder, covering the initial section of the urethra (urethra). The prostate gland produces a secret that, when mixed with seminal fluid, maintains sperm activity and resistance to various adverse conditions. With adenoma, an enlarged prostate gland squeezes the urethra, which leads to a violation of the outflow of urine from the bladder. Violation of the normal process of urination leads to stagnation of urine and, as a result, to the development of urolithiasis , cystitis , kidney disease (pyelonephritis), etc.
The enlargement of the prostate gland itself is painless and usually not felt by the patient. However, problems arising with urination cause the patient significant inconvenience, and it is with such complaints that he will consult a doctor.
To date, scientists have not come to a consensus on the causes of this disease. Among the possible factors distinguish not only age and hormonal disorders, but also the presence of a number of diseases (for example, atherosclerosis), a large increase in weight, age-related changes in lifestyle, stress, environmental factors.
Probably, BPH is an age-related disease associated with a natural change in the level of hormones ( testosterone ).
Symptoms of adenoma
– to empty the bladder, abdominal tension is necessary;
– urination becomes longer, urine flows in a sluggish, thin stream;
– closer to the end of urination, urine is discontinuous.
At later stages, when residual urine accumulates in the bladder due to incomplete emptying, the following symptoms join:
– the need for nightly urination, often several times;
– Frequent urges and inability to hold urine when the urge appears;
– constant leakage of urine;
– painful ejaculation;
– the process of urination becomes more painful, urine is released dropwise.
Complications of Prostate Adenoma
Without appropriate treatment, an adenoma can lead to – acute urinary retention; – hematuria (the appearance of blood in the urine); – infections of the genitourinary system (painful urination, chills, body aches, acute pain in the lower back, blood or pus may be present in the urine). What can you do.
If you find yourself having the symptoms listed above, you need to see a doctor as soon as possible. Many men with the appearance of such symptoms consider them normal age-related changes. This is not true. The sooner the patient comes to the doctor, the easier it is to stop the progression of the disease. What can your doctor do?
Diagnosis of adenoma is largely based on a survey and examination of the patient. At the appointment, the doctor will carefully ask you about complaints and manifestations of the disease.
To confirm the diagnosis, you may be prescribed:
– digital rectal examination,
– ultrasound of the prostate gland,
– uroflowmetry (a method that allows you to estimate the speed of urine flow),
– cystography, pneumocystography (make it possible to estimate the amount of residual urine),
– cystoscopy (if necessary),
– general urine analysis (allows you to determine the presence of a urological infection),
– a general blood test and a blood test to determine the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
In order to exclude prostate cancer, a blood test is performed for PSA levels, as well as a transperineal or transrectal biopsy. Prostate adenoma is treated conservatively (medically) and surgically.
Drug therapy brings a tangible effect only in the initial stages of the disease, when the formation of residual urine has not yet begun. Drugs are prescribed strictly individually, after passing the necessary studies.
The most effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia is surgical. There are several types of operations that are performed with an adenoma. The type of operation performed is determined by the doctor.