As a rule, the inflammatory process begins with the fallopian tubes. In this case, they talk about the course of acute salpingitis. Infection can enter the fallopian tubes both ascending (from the genital tract) and descending (with blood flow). The reason may be a variety of microbes – staphylococci, streptococci, esherechia. Salpingitis is a frequent complication of sexually transmitted diseases ( gonorrhea, chlamydia , etc.). Risk factors for salpingitis are also abortion, endoscopic examination of the uterus, installation of an intrauterine device, diagnostic curettage of the uterus. With all these manipulations, the probability of bacteria penetrating through the damaged uterine mucosa is high. The process can be either one-sided or two-sided (with gonococcal salpingitis).
First, the mucous membrane of the fallopian tube becomes inflamed. Over time, all its walls are involved in the process, and serous fluid, and sometimes pus, accumulates in the lumen. Most often, the infection spreads from the fallopian tube to the ovary. The combined inflammation of the ovary (oophoritis) and the fallopian tube is called salpingoophoritis.
Adnexitis begins acutely, with a rise in temperature to 39 ° C, periodic sharp pains in the lower abdomen with a transition to the lumbar region and sacrum. Sometimes the symptoms resemble acute appendicitis. The menstrual cycle is disturbed, menstruation becomes painful and longer, intermenstrual bleeding is possible. Patients complain of pain during urination, as well as characteristic watery and sometimes purulent discharge (white). Abdominal pain also occurs during intercourse and persists for some time after it.
Without treatment, adnexitis can become chronic. In this case, the symptoms become less pronounced, the pain is constant, aching. With hypothermia, stress, exacerbation of chronic adnexitis is possible.
Inflammation of the appendages is fraught with complications. In acute adnexitis, inflammation can go to the peritoneum with the development of peritonitis , which will require immediate surgical treatment. Long-term consequences are, first of all, the adhesion process in the area of the fallopian tubes, which, in turn, increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility . Sometimes infertility may be the only sign that suspects chronic adnexitis. What can a doctor do
After a gynecological examination, a study of vaginal smears on the flora is mandatory. In rare cases, diagnostic laparoscopy is necessary. Adnexitis treatment is mainly based on antibiotic therapy. Most often prescribed antibiotics from the group of penicillins or cephalosporins. The course of treatment continues for approximately 10-14 days after the disappearance of symptoms. Depending on the severity of the condition, the doctor may also prescribe painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs, and after the symptoms of the disease subside – physiotherapy.
What can you do
If the first symptoms of adnexitis appear, consult a doctor immediately. Self-medication can only aggravate the picture of the disease. Prevention of adnexitis includes, first of all, compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, timely treatment of genital infections, prevention of abortion, protective regime after gynecological operations. Try to avoid hypothermia, excessive stress and strengthen the immune system.