Mechanisms of action of antidepressants

How do antidepressants work? If you do not go into details, then antidepressants can correct the work of some brain mechanisms. Our brain consists of a huge number of nerve cells – neurons. Although there are connections between neurons, they do not touch each other directly – there is a gap between them, which is called a synaptic cleft or just a synapse.

How do antidepressants work?

The task of transferring information from one neutron to another and transferring it through the synapse is performed by a chemical mediator-mediator (from the Latin mediator-mediator). According to the biological theory of depression – during depression in the brain, the concentration of some mediators in the synapse decreases. The biochemical processes of our brain are very complex, and hundreds of different mediators take part in them. To date, only 30 have been isolated from them, and three mediators are directly related to depression. This is norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. They are called biogenic amines. Antidepressants, regulating the concentration of one or more biogenic amines, correct the mechanisms of the brain that were disturbed by depression. Let’s move from the mechanisms of action of drugs, which, probably, not everyone is interested in, to everyday issues.

Antidepressants – household issues
It is better to use medicines at the beginning of the disease than at the last minute. Publius Sir

Among the “normal” people there is an opinion that “antidepressants are very harmful”, “they can go crazy”, “get used to them for life”, etc. Is this true? Of course, there is no smoke without fire, but fire is the cost of Soviet psychiatry, when strong remedies “just in case” were prescribed in large doses with the corresponding results. In the rest of the world, the attitude towards drugs is completely different. To date, about 65 percent of the US population is taking psychotropic drugs (primarily antidepressants and tranquilizers).

There is a stereotype that taking antidepressants is a manifestation of a weak character. But at the same time, people who suffer from other diseases, such as hypertension or polyarthritis, take medication during periods of exacerbations and this is considered normal. For example, aspirin is not able to cure polyarthritis, but it can relieve pain in the joints and thereby alleviate the physical suffering of the patient. Unfortunately, in our society there is still a stereotype that depression is weak-willedness, non-assortment, and only a few understand that depression is the same disease that requires treatment. Yes, antidepressants can not always relieve depression, but they can reduce pain. Only not physical, but spiritual.

For many, the issue of getting used to antidepressants is important. Will not the body demand and after the release of depression another portion of the pills of joy? You can answer more than unequivocally – the drugs used to date in the treatment of depression, do not cause addiction, regardless of the duration of treatment. They only help the body to restore those mechanisms that were disturbed by depression.

Those people whose work is related to creativity, often worried about the question, will the antidepressant drug use interfere with the processes that are responsible for creativity? In most cases, depression does not have the best effect on creativity, but most often makes it impossible. Antidepressants are able to restore a broken inner world and restore the ability to create a person’s ability to create, because most often creativity contributes to mental health.

The task of a psychiatrist is to select the right preparations. Only half of the patients experience improvement after the first course of therapy, so that the selection of drugs can be called trial and error. A doctor can prescribe several drugs before he finds the most effective one. In many clinics, it is practiced to prescribe free drugs to persons who are on psychiatric records. Since the cost of the drugs of the last generations can reach $ 50-100, and they can be written down several types, imagine how much it can cost. Although – they say that over the past 30 years nothing better and stronger than the good old amyltriptilena has not been invented. New drugs basically differ in contraindications (they are much less) and at a price (it is much higher).

The effect of the drug is not immediately apparent – usually between the time of the beginning of the reception and the appearance of a positive effect is not less than 2-3 weeks, although in some cases, positive mood changes may appear in one week. For someone, drugs are a panacea, and a person who has tried to escape from depression for many months unsuccessfully comes to life right before our eyes. Someone they are able to remove only some of the depressive symptoms. But there are people on whom drug therapy does not affect. Do not rush to rank yourself in the last category – everything is very individual


Antidepressants are drugs that alleviate or prevent depression. Before the discovery of antidepressants for the treatment of depression, substances with an exciting effect, capable of causing a state of euphoria (opium and other opiates, caffeine, ginseng) were actively used. To reduce anxiety and excitability, valerian was used, and bromine salts were also used. But a real coup in psychopharmacology was the discovery of antidepressants in the early 50’s. Since then, for half a century, these drugs are the main means to combat depression. Despite the fact that the era of antidepressants began recently, it already has its own “myths of creation.”

Since the beginning of the twentieth century, researchers have experimented with various substances, trying to synthesize a drug that alleviates the symptoms of depression, but all experiments ended in failure. The first antidepressant was “discovered” in 1957 by accident, when doctors drew attention to the action of the drug and iprniazide, which was used in the complex treatment of tuberculosis. In addition to the main effect of the drug, there was a side effect, which was an unusual increase in mood in patients with tuberculosis. Soon this drug was used to relieve the symptoms of depression, especially as a remedy for tuberculosis, the drug did not justify itself.

According to another version, the drug was discovered by Nathan Kline, and his discovery was also more than random – he tried to prove the theory of the location of the “ego” with the help of the drug. During psychoanalytic sessions, Klein noticed that some of the patients he gave the drug suddenly stopped worrying about the problems they were working on. Iproneazid was released for sale, but soon it turned out that it increases the risk of jaundice, and drug sales were discontinued.

At the same time, in Germany Ronald Kuhn was discovered imipromine. Kuhn gave his patients various drugs in order to build a global classification of mental illnesses, according to their reactions, to which German psychiatrists of that time were literally obsessed. As in previous cases, the drug was “open” when patients began to improve their mood. Unlike iproniazid, imipromine is still on the list of WHO official preparations and before prozac was the best-selling antidepressant.

When the first antidepressants were discovered, no one could have imagined that in just a few decades, antidepressant therapy would almost replace all other types of depression therapy, and according to a survey conducted in the late 20th century in the United States, the greatest discovery of the last century would not be the theory of relativity , and not the Internet, but a small capsule of Prozac.

Number of neurotransmitters in the body

Understanding what neurotransmitters are, the functions of these substances and their role in the body, it becomes obvious that their number should be balanced in order for a person to feel good.

For example, when the concentration of serotonin decreases, a person feels unhappy, exhausted, devoid of motivation for any activity. And then the question arises: is it possible to influence the number of neurotransmitters in the body? Regulation of the number of neurotransmitters The most common substance, the amount of which the body tries to influence in various ways, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Is it possible to increase its amount in the body? Completely. To do this, you can use one of the tips below.
The level of serotonin in the body can be increased with food, while the leader in the list of foods and dishes are bananas, chocolate and citrus. There is a correlation between physical activity of a person and serotonin. A bad mood can be dispelled with the help of a power load on the muscles. But the important thing is the condition: the very kind of training should be pleasant. The increased production of serotonin takes place under sunlight, so residents of countries where the number of clear days prevail over overcast days is less likely to experience depression.
Serotonin can be raised by massage. In this case, it is not necessary to contact a professional masseur at every decrease in mood. You can help conventional massagers or a simple manual massage, which does not require any skills.
Approximately, the process of increasing acetylcholine also appears. Doctors recommend enriching their diet of B4 vitamins, exercise regularly and engage in “brain training” – that is, resort to interesting intellectual activity.
If simple methods do not help raise the level of neurotransmitters, there is a reason to consult a doctor for pharmacological assistance.

The neurotransmitter is

The neurotransmitter is: the definition, functions and features
Neurotransmitters of the brain are substances about which we know little, but which affect the quality of our life, our state of health and our mood. Thanks to them, we can experience a feeling of pleasure or depression, be active or relaxed.

What are neurotransmitters?

Neurotransmitters are biochemical substances, the main function of which is the transfer of impulses between neurons. By impulse, in simplified language, information is meant, for example, a guide to action if it makes a connection between the neuron of the brain and the neuron of the muscle tissue. That is, the neurotransmitter is the mediator involved in the transfer of momentum between nerve cells. There are three systems of neurotransmitters: amino acids; peptides; monamine. Mediators from each group act on the nervous system in one way or another. For example, exciting it or hindering it.

Hormones of pleasure

Of all the neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine are the most familiar. They are called “pleasure hormones”, but what is meant by this term, not everyone knows.
Serotonin really is a hormone of pleasure. Its high concentration in the body causes a person a feeling of bliss, relaxation, serene joy. That is, it can be classified as a neurotransmitter with a retarding effect. Dopamine, on the contrary, encourages a person to act. But its difference from other exciting neurotransmitters is that it is developed to motivate people to perform activities that will bring a person pleasure in obtaining the result or on the way to it. Important is the fact that these neurotransmitter substances are antagonists. When a person’s dopamine level rises, serotonin falls. For example, a person plans to go in for sports and believes that after the training will experience a sense of pleasure. The increase in dopamine will prompt a person to immediately begin to work, he will be anxious when delayed.

After he performs the desired (will carry out the planned training), the level of dopamine will drop, and serotonin, on the contrary, will increase. And a person can enjoy the result of the work done. It is important that the interaction of substances does not work in the reverse order. That is, a low level of serotonin does not entail an increase in dopamine without fail.


Antidepressants are an extremely necessary thing when a person is on the verge of life and death due to a mood disorder.
The word “antidepressants” is alarming. We do not know much about mental disorders, especially if we are not interested in this specifically. Around mental disorders – if not a halo of romanticism and mystery, then frightening stories. There are also those who consider antidepressants to be dangerous drugs that change personality and cause addiction and terrible consequences. Because of this, sometimes those who need treatment refuse it. Suddenly, all these stories are true? understands how everything really is: what are antidepressants and why they are needed, how they are applied, whether they cause side effects and addiction, whether they can be canceled at any time and why it is normal to take them, if necessary.

What are antidepressants
Antidepressants are substances that affect the functioning of the central nervous system, and as the name implies, they are mainly used in the treatment of depression.

These drugs relieve the sensations of melancholy, apathy, anxiety, anxiety, irritability, tension, increase the activity of the psyche, normalize appetite and sleep. To understand how antidepressants work, you need to understand how the nervous system works.


Now there are several types, certain groups that affect the pathogenic organisms (except for broad-spectrum drugs). To determine the purpose of the drug, the doctor must accurately determine the type of infectious disease, pathogen and sensitivity to the selected active substance.

At appointment all is considered: age, weight of the patient, allergic reactions, severity of the disease. It is impossible to reduce the dose and interrupt treatment if the condition improves. This attitude to therapy can lead to further deterioration of the condition, loss of therapeutic effect, and the adaptation of bacteria to the antibiotic.

If it is not possible to accurately determine the type and type of pathogen, then broad-spectrum drugs are used that affect a number of pathogenic microbes.

The effect of antibiotics on the body

There are no medicines that can cure diseases without detriment to the human body. This applies to any medications, including antibiotics. But without the use of medications prescribed by a doctor, it is impossible to cope with severe infectious diseases. Such is the pattern.

A bit of history

In 1928 a new era began in medical practice – the era of antibiotics. It was then that the action of penicillin was discovered. To replace the high early mortality from infections, it’s time to increase the life expectancy of people. Antibiotics changed the world. Their use has put an end to raging epidemics, infectious pandemics, and massive infections. However, did the use of antibiotic drugs become a panacea for salvation or a curse for humans?

The very name of the medicines of such an action in translation from Latin means “against life”. Active active substances of such drugs are fighting the vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms.

The effects of antibiotics on microorganisms

The action of antibiotics is a directed fight against the negative activity of pathogenic microorganisms that penetrated the human body. Antibiotic drugs work purposefully on pathogenic microbes, without affecting the vital abilities of cells. But you can not use antibiotics on any occasion. Overabundance of drugs leads to a heavy load on many organs, causing a malfunction in their work. Unfortunately, these preparations are characterized by the destruction of not only the pathogenic environment, which is the root cause of many diseases.

Antibiotics are harmful to many positive bacteria that maintain a normal state of the microflora, especially the gastrointestinal tract, digestive system, mucous membranes. Useful bacteria are present in all places where there is a possibility of contact with foreign bodies. So the balance is realized. Its change is fraught with disproportionate growth of antagonists. Disorder and imbalance in the body leads to dysbiosis. Incorrect use of antibiotics involves a series of different abnormalities. And the lack of necessary treatment can lead to chronic illnesses and even death.

Antibiotics – a group of drugs that affect infectious bacteria. They have no effect on viruses and fungi. Therefore, the use of such drugs is inappropriate in the following cases:

  • Viral diseases, not burdened by bacterial infections.
  • Diarrhea, which is a digestive disorder, not caused by pathogens.
  • Symptomatic cold, in the absence of bacterial infection.
  • Glistovye infestations.
  • Diseases provoked by the simplest, for example, Giardia.
  • Fungal diseases.
  • Allergic reactions to irritants and allergens.

That is why, before using drugs of this type, you should conduct laboratory tests, identifying the cause and inflammatory nature of the disease.

If it is established that the infectious disease is bacterial, if it is found that without the use of antibiotics, treatment will not be successful, then a proper selection of these funds is required.

What should I do to save the work of the spleen as much as possible?

Splenic organ is responsible for the action of moisture in the body. When antibiotics disrupt the functioning of the spleen, the body accumulates fluid and forms sputum.

This causes the development of pathologies (inflammatory processes of the ear, tonsillitis, allergies, spleen accumulation, which leads to cough and respiratory tract ailments).

Given the weakened state of this body after the constant use of such drugs to fully recover, it is unable, therefore the need for antibiotic use increases, they are prescribed already with less life-threatening diseases. Therefore, the use of antibiotics should be treated with extreme caution, and it is better to use them only if it is impossible to fully recover with other medicines or herbal medicine. The latter type of therapy allows you to achieve maximum effect with the help of individually selected by the doctor herbal collections that help to eliminate the imbalance of body immunity.

A healthy spleen lends itself to rapid recovery after active use of antibiotics.

This method requires constant medical control and changes in therapy. The constant use of a new collection of herbs with antimicrobial properties allows you to cure more than one disease, and the whole body. But in relation to some people it almost does not work, therefore it is necessary to resort to treatment by medicines, including antibiotics. Therefore, the more cautious the person will be about treating antibiotics, the less he will be ill in the future.

Why is immunity violated?

By provoking the destruction and complete destruction of the necessary microorganisms, antibiotics weaken the immune system. For bacteria and fungi of the gastrointestinal tract, the absence of which disrupts the digestive function or makes it impossible, such effects are dangerous. These microorganisms allow to correctly digest and assimilate the substances coming from food. Destroy and yeast fungi, responsible for the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.

Killing simultaneously pathogenic and necessary bacteria, antibiotics disrupt the functioning of many body systems, thereby reducing the immunity of the patient. With such actions, the general condition of the patient worsens. Thus, an anomalous increase in the number of yeast fungi can occur, which increases the risk of their escape from the intestine and penetration into other areas of the body. There is an immediate reaction of immunity, directed against fungal bacteria in unintentional places for them – the body begins to fight them. Yeast fungi begin to release harmful enzymes for immunity and cause an imbalance in the hormonal background of the body.

With increased permeability of the intestine, penetration of the yeast fungal decomposition products occurs, the immunity begins to fight them, thereby developing an allergy to those foods that a healthy person does not experience allergies.

The main negative effects of antibiotics on beneficial bacteria:

  • there is a strong permeability of the intestine;
  • the hormonal background is broken;
  • develops an allergic reaction to a certain type of food;
  • a violation of the immune system due to persistent allergic reactions;
  • development of autoimmune pathologies in the form of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune
  • glomerulonephritis, Crohn’s disease and other ailments;
  • one of the most serious consequences is the development of immunodeficiency, immunological infertility
  • and oncological diseases.

Thus, the functioning of immunity can be violated until the stage of incorrect identification of dangerous bacteria and the destruction of their own. Specialists of Oriental medicine believe that if antibiotics have disrupted the function of digestion in a patient, then the spleen is damaged. Signs of this condition are liquid stools, flatulence and bloating. Dysfunction of the spleen causes a lack of biological energy necessary for the body. In patients, a feeling of freezing in the limbs, a worsened appetite, fatigue, the acquisition of unhealthy complexion.

How antibiotics affect children’s body

How antibiotics affect children’s body

Antibiotics are excellent for treating infections caused by bacteria, fungi and protozoa. In the presence of diseases that cause the above pathogens, without the help of antibiotics can not cope in any way.

The harmful effects of antibiotics on the child’s body (in one way or another) are manifested in the following situations:

When the wrong preparation.

Very often parents, in case of illness of their beloved, do not always hurry to consult a doctor. Having seen the familiar (or similar) symptoms of the disease, they independently prescribe the child treatment, based on previous experience. Usually such “treatment” ends with certain complications and even hospitalization of the baby.

When the necessary duration of treatment is not observed.

Typically, antibiotics are prescribed for a course of 5 to 10 days (in some situations and up to 14 days). Quite a frequent phenomenon – the abolition of treatment for 2-3 days of taking an antibiotic. Mom explained their position as the only excuse: “The child has become better! Here he is already running, jumping and the temperature is within the norm. Why should he be stuffed with chemistry? ” And they stop treatment at the stage of visible improvement. Usually, after a few days, they again visit the doctor with previous complaints and symptoms. But only the state of the child after such “initiative” already requires more serious treatment.
When together with the antibacterial drug an antiallergic agent is prescribed. Antibiotics, like any other pharmaceutical preparations, can cause an allergic reaction. That is why it is very irrational to take antibiotics and antihistamines together. In this situation, you will never know if a certain antibiotic is like a baby or not.

When a child takes antibiotics too often.

Now many people will have a question: “How often is it like?”. The concept is slightly stretchable. Let’s find out what specialists think about the frequency of taking antibiotics. Pediatricians claim that if a baby takes antibacterial drugs (if necessary, following all recommendations) 2-4 times a year, then this treatment should not bring any particular harm to his body. Serious negative consequences may occur in the case of more frequent prescribing of these drugs (monthly or more than 5-6 times per year) without proper restorative therapy.