Mobilizing formulas

We now turn to a specific process of “targeted” verbal impact, aimed at consciously increasing the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, the activity of which is the physiological basis of the mobilized state of the body.

Academician I.P. Pavlov wrote: “The word, thanks to the entire previous life of an adult, is associated with all external and internal stimuli that come to the big hemispheres, all signals, replaces them and therefore can cause all those actions, reactions of the body that cause those irritations.”

Let us pay attention to the words: “associated with all external and internal stimuli that come to the cerebral hemispheres,” that is, to the brain — an organ of our consciousness. As already mentioned, the words associated with the signals coming from our internal organs give rise to much less vivid ideas (IM Sechenov called them “dark sensations”) than words associated with the outside world or with those systems of our body obey consciousness (for example, with skeletal muscles).

The task facing us is to learn independently, taking into account the current situation, to activate the activity of the whole organism. This means that first of all it is necessary to increase the tone of the sympathetic nervous system. However, its functions are not subject to direct verbal orders. So, to activate it, you need to look for workarounds.

In the process of mobilizing self-suggestion it is necessary to distinguish two main points. The first is that the words used for self-mobilization do not directly affect the organs, the state of which determines the success of mobilization, and with the help of the corresponding words they cause mental images of the leading symptoms that are characteristic of the increased tone of the sympathetic nervous system (for example, “pleasant chills “or” dry mouth “).

We know that an increase in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system is accompanied by such phenomena as rapid heartbeat, deep breathing, exacerbation of hearing and vision. At the same time, there are sensations of slight trembling, cooling of the extremities, “goose-skin” appears on the body, etc. So, words for self-mobilization should contain a description of the symptoms that arise in connection with an increase in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, without mentioning it directly.

Here are a few examples of such words, or rather, phrases that are commonly called the formulas of auto-suggestion: “There is a feeling of a light chill … just like after a cool shower … A slight tremor appears in the muscles … Chills intensifies … Deep breathing, rapid …” As you can see, about the sympathetic nervous The system in these formulas is not a word. Nevertheless, correctly chosen words can cause its activation. This is the first position concerning the mobilization using the formulas of auto-suggestion.

The second proposition is that (as has already been said more than once) the effect of words is more pronounced when the level of wakefulness of the brain is reduced. Therefore, if you decide to master the method of consciously regulating the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, you must learn to achieve a state of complete rest, and even better – half asleep, drowsiness. Then the action of self-hypnosis formulas will be much more effective. This technique is especially important at the initial stage of learning mental self-regulation. With the acquisition of experience, mobilizing formulas will have their effect in the normal, awake state. Immersion in a nap before activating and mobilizing can be compared with a squat, which helps to jump higher up.

The mobilizing formulas of PMT, which increase the tone of the sympathetic nervous system to the optimum level, can be different. Below is a set of formulas aimed at the sympathetic nervous system, in the sequence in which they are usually used (although their order may be different depending on the individual psyche).

It is better to use these mobilizing formulas immediately after the calming, leading to a decrease in the level of brain wakefulness, to be immersed in a drowsy (“screen”) state. The sequence of mobilizing formulas in general is as follows (it is necessary to “pronounce” them with eyes closed):

1. There is a feeling of easy chill.
2. A condition like after a cool shower.
3. Of all the muscles go feeling of heaviness and relaxation.
4. A slight tremor begins in the muscles.
5. Chills intensified.
6. Head and neck become cold.
7. The body ran “goosebumps.”
8. The skin becomes “goose.”
9. Cold palms and feet.
10. Breathing is deep, rapid.
11. The heart beats strongly, energetically, accelerated.
12. Chills even more.
13. All muscles are lungs, elastic, strong.
14. I am more cheerful and more cheerful!
15. I open my eyes.
16. I look intensely, with extreme concentration.
17. I am pleasantly excited.
18. I am full of energy.
19. I am like a compressed spring.
20. I am fully mobilized!
21. I am ready to act!

Of course, these formulas are not dogma. Someone will suit their other order, and someone may need to I am only 2-3 formulas based on personal experience. For example, such: “I walk barefoot through the snow”, “I bathe in the ice-hole”, “I stand on the edge of the abyss”. A figurative representation of such situations and their state in this, drawn up in precise phrases, can also cause an increase in the tone of the sympathetic nervous system, and, consequently, the necessary mobilization of the reserve forces of the body.

And one more important point: while fishing and presenting the content of the mobilizing formulas, one can and should use the corresponding physical components. If, for example, with the formula “I am like a compressed spring”, the muscles of the body involuntarily tighten or the fists shrink, then this is a natural and useful reaction. Such physical elements help to accompany verbal formulas with clear, real sensations. In some cases, the corresponding physical sensations can and should be reproduced specifically, consciously activating certain muscle groups. With the help of such a purposeful activation of the musculoskeletal system, individual physical elements are firmly fixed in the mind, contributing to the process of further mental mobilization.

Alternating complacency procedures with self-excitation procedures (no other way is given!), We have, as already mentioned, strengthened not only our mental beginning, but also the entire body, which is very useful in our rather stressful time.

Self-regulation and autogyptoid vegetation (AGIV)

In the early 30s academician I.P. Pavlov, in his Reply to a Psychologist to Psychologists, wrote: “Man is, of course, a system (coarser, machine), like any other in nature, subject to the laws that are inevitable and the same for all of nature; but the system, in the horizon of our modern scientific vision, is the only one by the highest self-regulation … supporting, restoring, correcting and even improving itself ”(highlighted by me. – A. A.).
Thus, more than half a century ago, scientists noticed that a living organism has such a remarkable quality as self-regulation. It is thanks to this mechanism, worked out by evolution in the acting organism, as if by themselves the changes occur that ensure the performance of the necessary actions, organize the necessary behavior. But the fact that self-regulation in each individual case is carried out through the formation of certain functional systems necessary in this case was most clearly and fully stated only in recent decades by representatives of the school of academician PK Anokhin (by the way, the direct student of IP Pavlov).
Studies conducted in connection with the development of the theory of functional systems have shown, in particular, that each system has, so to speak, a vertical structure. This means that the scheme of the functional system is born on the “highest level” of the body – in the brain, where future activity is programmed (the cerebral cortex) and an emotional attitude to this program is formed (subcortical nodes, higher vegetative centers).

Here, in the central nervous system, there is a special apparatus that perceives and evaluates all the information that enters the brain from the body and the environment. This device P.K. Anokhin called the “acceptor of the results of action.” It is not only an assessment of the incoming information (so-called “afferent”) information in the brain, but also its verification with the ideal model of the very final result that needs to be achieved. In the event of a discrepancy between what is “necessary” and what is “happening,” the acceptor of the results of the action makes appropriate adjustments aimed at achieving the desired result. The task programmed in the brain, in the “upper floor” of the functional system, is then realized through its “lower floors” by means of “turning on” and “turning off” those organs that are needed to accomplish the intended task.

The activities of the bodies that make up the established functional system can proceed very harmoniously, extremely harmoniously – and then the person copes with his work successfully and easily. But, unfortunately, the joint activities of various bodies are not always clearly coordinated – and then difficulties arise in the behavior of a person solving a particular task. For example, a student who is not particularly confident in his knowledge, taking an exam ticket, often begins to worry so much that he is almost speechless. There is a mismatch between the activities of the brain and speech muscles in the functional system, which was supposed to be the basis for solving a specific task – the successful passing of exams. In those cases when all the components of the system act harmoniously, the student retains the ability to think clearly and clearly express his thoughts.

The same thing happens in sports with the “starting fever”, which is based, in particular, on the coordination of the brain and skeletal muscles: excessive excitation of the nerve centers leads to entrenchment of the musculoskeletal system, and as a result, the accuracy of movements is disturbed and injured muscle. Ideally, high mental arousal should be combined with an equally high degree of muscle relaxation. Valeriy Borzov’s run at the Olympics in Munich can serve as a model of such optimal consistency – swift, easy, relaxed.

However, evolution did not “foresee” what the sport would be in the 20th and 21st centuries, and did not foresee the need for antagonism between an agitated psyche and muscle liberation. Moreover, nature laid a direct relationship in man: the more agitated the psyche, the more intense the muscles become. But for this we are considered to be Homo sapiens – thinking people, to help evolution in correcting its imperfections and shortcomings.

Most often, disturbances in the activity of functional systems in healthy people occur during extreme situations, that is, in those moments when the body (and first of all its highest section – the central nervous system) experiences excessive stress, especially painful with negative emotions that have important to that person. Consequently, the self-regulation mechanisms inherent in us by nature are not absolutely reliable and do not always turn out to be strong enough. Thus, the acceptor of the results of the action also does not always cope with the task of forming the optimal mode of activity of the functionalsystems. At the same time, medical (in particular, psychotherapeutic) experience shows that if a person is specially prepared for the upcoming distress, he tolerates it fairly easily, and his functional systems (despite the negative influence of distress factors) continue to work quite consistently and efficiently, which contributes to maintaining well-being of the body when performing the next task.

Thus, the construction and operation of functional systems can be carried out in two ways. Usually they arise and decay as if by themselves, automatically, under the influence of certain needs of the organism or under the influence of environmental factors – in these cases the mechanisms of spontaneous, unconscious self-regulation act. But functional systems are capable of changing their structure as a result of a specific, consciously intended goal. Practice shows that people who are accustomed to reasonably use the power of words and the corresponding mental images, consciously formulated goal, as a rule, contributes to the harmonious construction of functional systems that ensure the upcoming activities and the achievement of the desired calm state. In such harmonious functional systems, all components interact in a coordinated manner, which ensures high performance of activities.

We conclude that human speech, with which one or another task can be clearly formulated, helps us consciously organize the coordinated activities of the individual components that make up the functional systems of the body. Therefore, using the possibilities of thinking and speech, you can help the body in establishing its successful and productive life – even in the most difficult distress situations.

Autohypnoid vegetative

As already mentioned, translated from ancient Greek, “autos” means “myself”, “hypnosis” – “dream”. And what is the “ideo-vegetic”? I think that this is the most correct way to call the process of submission to the mental images of the vegetative functions of our body (“ideo” – thought, mental image; “vegetalics” – vegetative nervous system).

The process of influencing mental images on the autonomic nervous system, without calling it “ideo-vegetative”, was mentioned more than once. And now, in my opinion, it makes sense to repeat a number of provisions that, to one degree or another, highlight the essence of autohypnoid vegetatives (AHIV). After all, it is in it that the base of that maximum energy and working capacity is laid, without which it is impossible to achieve high results. In addition, the autonomic nervous system, together with the endocrine glands, largely determines the strength of emotional reactions. Therefore, to manage vegetation means to be able to very well and consciously create the desired emotional state. And this is extremely important in everyday life.

The autonomic nervous system is known to control the activity of the internal organs and the endocrine glands. Its name comes from the Latin word “vegetative”, which means “plant”. When this term was introduced, it was believed that the autonomic nervous system functions like plants – mindlessly, by its far-from-learned laws. Hence, the second of its name arose – the “autonomous” nervous system, that is, it acts independently, autonomously, independently of our consciousness, without submitting to our control and purposeful influence.

So, in essence, it actually happens. After all, not by using consciousness, we change, say, the heart rate when we go from walking to running – in this case, the heart begins to beat more often, as if by itself, vegetatively, automatically rearranging the nature of our activity in accordance with the task. And the composition of gastric juice, depending on the food eaten, also changes without the participation of our consciousness. And the liver completely throws glucose into the blood on its own – if circumstances so require, and puts it in their cells in reserve in the form of glycogen – when the need for large amounts of glucose stops. There are many examples of such autonomous (without the help of consciousness) activity of the vegetative nervous system.

However, the wise nature still gave us the opportunity to consciously lead the vegetative processes. For this, as already mentioned, mental images aimed at regulating vegetatives should be passed through the brain, which is at a reduced level of wakefulness (or, to put it simply, in a drowsy, half-asleep state, when the brain’s susceptibility to mental images created in it) .

Therefore, with a reduced level of wakefulness of the brain, using, so to speak, roundabout ways, we gain the ability to influence, for example, the activity of the heart or the gastrointestinal tract. And this means that the autonomic nervous system is not completely autonomous, that under certain conditions, it still begins to obey our consciousness, our thoughts and desires.

I remind you that in the autonomic nervous system there are two sections that have the exact opposite effect on many processes in the body. The first section – the sympathetic – contributes to the activation of all body functions in conditions that require the person to exert tension and increased energy expenditure. The second section – the parasympathetic – on the contrary, automatically turns on in cases where a person needs to calm down and recover the energy resources expended. With some degree of conditionality, it can be said that in the daytime the activity of the sympathetic section prevails, and in the nighttime – the parasympathetic one.

And now let’s imagine that a person needs to mobilize himself for considerable mental and physical effort, which requires a sharp increase in the tone of the sympathetic section of the autonomic nervous system. How to achieve this with the help of autohypnoid vegetative mechanisms? Directly ordering the sympathetic section: “Arouse!” Is meaningless, for it, so to speak, will not obey. Therefore, another, devious way to achieve the desired self-mobilization is proposed: you have to sit down, close your eyes and use self-training (self-hypnosis, self-hypnosis) for 3-5 seconds to immerse yourself in a drowsy state, even if not particularly deep. And then it is very clear and vivid to imagine that waves of invigorating chills ran all over the body – such as during a stay under an ice shower. Or imagine a situation that can cause a feeling of overwhelming rage.

Naturally, it is necessary to find in advance the corresponding mental images that can significantly improve the tone of the sympathetic section. Without the sharp inclusion of this department in high activity, it is simply impossible to mobilize oneself to the utmost psychophysical effort.
It is extremely beneficial for each person to have in their mental arsenal several such mental images and programs that would be able to personally cause the necessary self-mobilization. And, of course, it is necessary to own any method of psychic self-regulation (auto-training, self-hypnosis, self-hypnosis), with the help of which in a matter of seconds you can immerse yourself in a drowsy, dreamlike state, which is the basis for solving many problems. Moreover, we must learn to do it in the most tense conditions, despite the various interference in the environment.

Mastering autohypnoid vegetation is, frankly, a difficult, even difficult, time-consuming, persistent and highly motivated business. Only a few take AIV in 2–3 months of daily workouts, devoting an average of about an hour a day to them, the others need much more time to do this. But after all, autohypnoid vegetics own (and, quite well), yogis are typical representatives of an idealistic worldview.

Why, then, to us, materialists, who know perfectly well how our body works, do not adopt such an important ability to help ourselves? But how wonderful it would be: they imagined that the agitated heart was beginning to beat calmly, and the rhythm of its contractions slowed down. Or she presented an athlete that menstruations, which should begin on the days of important competitions, were delayed for a whole week – and the schedule of natural cyclicity obediently changed. To achieve this skill is not only possible, but very necessary, despite the many difficulties along the way. Modern people just need to master the possibilities inherent in autohypnoid vegetation – only under this condition can they truly successfully regulate their psychophysical state in extreme conditions.

It is high time to understand that if a person wants to remain invulnerable in terms of mental stability in any (especially in difficult, distress) situations, he must learn to automate and calm his nervous system, his psyche with the help of auto-training. We can say with certainty: everyone who sets such a goal in front of him will definitely achieve it. You just need to really want this.

Dementia – causes, epidemiology, classification

Synonyms of dementia: a chronically occurring psychosyndrome, organic progressive disorder of brain activity in the elderly. Definition of dementia. Relatively frequent impairment of memory and other cognitive functions (eg, orientation), lasting longer than 6 months. Epidemiology of dementia. In Germany, about 1 million patients, the development of the disease is associated with age, about 60% of cases are Alzheimer’s disease.

Causes of dementia

1. Degenerative (atrophic processes of the brain): Alzheimer’s disease, Pick’s disease, Choking’s disease, dementia, adenitis, dementia, affection, affection, a complex of Guam Island (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis + dementia + parkinsonism), idiopathic Parkinson’s syndrome, spinal-cerebellar, and cerebellar-cerebral hereditary ataxia, asymptomatic heart disease, spinal-cerebellar, and cerebellar-cerebral hereditary ataxia, asymptoma Richardson-Olszewski) and others.

2. Brain diseases caused by vascular disorders: hypertensive encephalopathy, subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy (Binswanger disease), multi-infarction syndrome, other hemodynamically-thromboembolic-related vascular diseases, vasculitis, etc.

3. Metabolic disorders, endocrine disorders: diabetes mellitus porphyria, hepatic / renal insufficiency, lipidosis, glucogenosis, mitochondrial encephalopathy, hypovitaminosis, avitaminosis (primarily B1, B6, B12, nicotinic acid), Addison disease, Cushing disease, hypo / hyperthyroidism, hypochondrosis, hypoemia, hyperplasia;

4. Chronic intoxication: alcohol medicinal / narcotic preparations salts of heavy metals (for example, lead), organic compounds (for example, solvents), etc.

5. Inflammatory diseases, infections: syphilis (progressive paralysis) multiple sclerosis, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, meningoencephalitis, etc.

6. Neoplasms, tumors: a) intracranial: brain tumors, tumors of the base of the skull b) extracranial: carcinomatous meningitis, paraneoplastic syndrome

7. Traumatic brain injuries: brain contusion, chronic subdural hematomas 8. Cerebral diseases occurring with seizures: various forms of epilepsy Classification of dementia: – Alzheimer’s disease – Dementia with Levi bodies, – Parkinson’s disease (50% of people with Parkinson’s disease develop dementia !) – Dementia Fronto-temporal (Pick’s disease) – Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – Vascular Dementia
Source: MedUniver

Delirium – synonyms, diagnosis, prognosis

Synonyms: acute disorder of consciousness; acute psychotic syndrome; transient syndrome; exogenous reactive type

Definition of delirium: acute reversible disorder of attention, perception, thinking, consciousness with psychosomatic manifestations

Epidemiology of delirium. 15-30% of patients in somatic hospitals develop delirious syndromes, in 1/3 of which the occurrence is pharmacologically determined.

Etiopathogenesis of delirium

Cholinergic deficiency caused by:

  •  Anticholinergic drugs
  • Intoxication
  • Cancellation (for example, alcohol), see Discontinuation Syndrome (withdrawal syndrome)
  • Metabolic disorders (diabetes, hepatic / renal failure)
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neurological disorders (Diseases)
  • Metabolic disorders (diabetes) .

Brain injury; addiction: alcohol, drug or drug; advanced age; severe or moderate severity of general health; previous episode of delirium in history; the postoperative period, accompanied by a water-electrolyte imbalance, taking painkillers, etc.

The development of drug-induced delirium, among other things, can be triggered by drugs with anticholinergic effects, such as tricyclic antidepressants and phenothiazines (neuroleptics), especially often in pre-treatment.

Medicinal / narcotic drugs that induce the development of delirium:

  • Alcohol (withdrawal)
  • Benzodiazepines (cancellation)
  • Barbiturates (cancellation)
  • Preparations with anticholinergic effects: for example, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, biperiden, atropine
  • Dopaminergic drugs, for example, to use systhemes, for example, tricyclic antidepressants, phenothiazines, biperiden, atropine. Anticonvulsant drugs: for example, phenytoin, valproaty
  • Antibiotics, antifungal, antiviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs: for example, gyrase inhibitors, nitrofurans, isoniazid, rifampicin, amphoteric The acyclovir
  • Others: for example, digitalis preparations, cimetidine, theophylline, lidocaine, corticosteroids main symptoms of delirium. Acute onset: disorientation, attention disorder, impaired consciousness.

Generalized anxiety disorder – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Generalized anxiety disorder – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Synonyms: fear neurosis, anxiety neurosis Definition of generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety and excitement about everyday things that go on for a long time, accompanied by heavy meditations and anxious anticipation

Epidemiology of generalized anxiety disorder. Prevalence rates vary depending on the diagnostic criteria and trigger mechanisms of the disorder; 5%, the ratio of women: men is 2: 1, the typical patients of the general practitioner!

• Vulnerability-stress model
• Genetic and neurobiological factors (heredity); neurobiological disorders in the system of neurotransmitters and receptor functions (among other things, changes in the sensitivity of receptors to GABA and benzodiazepines)

The main symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder:
• “Pathological Concern” (eg, your own health)
• Permanent groundless fears and worries about ordinary things.
• Nervousness
• Physical stress Diagnostic criteria for generalized anxiety disorder:
• Stages of diagnostic search – normal or pathological anxiety?
– Are there signs of other mental disorders or somatic diseases?
• State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI): scale for assessing anxiety • Hamilton anxiety scale (NAMA): scale for objective assessment

Differential diagnostics
• First of all – with panic disorder, obsessional disorder, depression – often there is comorbidity
• In addition, anxiety often accompanies other mental and somatic diseases!
• Somatic diseases. Coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, hypoglycemia, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid, pulmonary embolism, bronchial asthma, syphilis, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis
• Neurological and mental illness. Organic psycho-syndrome, alcoholism, drug addiction; schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorders / stress / personality disorders
• Effect of caffeine intake, pharmacological agents. Sympathomimetics, theophylline, bronchial drugs
• Comorbidity.

Depression, substance abuse Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder
• Psychopharmacotherapy:
– drugs of choice
– antidepressants (citalopram, escitalo-pram, paroxetine, venlafaxine), the response rate is 60% (respectively, 40% placebo, confidence level A)
– new drug pregabalin (150-600 mg / day.)
– second-line drugs
– opipramol and buspirone
– for emergency treatment (for relief of acute attacks), benzodiazepines can be used in a short course (once)

• Cognitive behavioral therapy or a single psychotherapy session. Current and prognosis. Often takes a chronic course of varying intensity; clinical recovery of 50% within 5 years.

Gebefreniya – synonyms, diagnosis, prognosis

Gebefreniya – synonyms, diagnosis, prognosis

Synonyms: juvenile schizophrenia, disorganized form of schizophrenia, Hecker’s schizophrenia, hebephrenic syndrome

Definition of hebephrenia. Manifesting schizophrenia in adolescence, with affective-volitional disorders (foolishness, absurd antics, tendency to eccentricity, pronounced features of childishness), accompanied by antisocial behavior (variant malignant adolescent schizophrenia)

The main symptoms of hebephrenia. Affective disorders: foolishness, flattening of affect, gaiety or indifference, sometimes grotesque inappropriate behavior (laughter in serious or sad situations), thought disorder (“leap of ideas”, disorganization of thinking, paralogical thinking, mimoglozhenie)

Diagnostic criteria:
– ICD-10 F20.1
– Common to schizophrenia diagnostic criteria
– Long-term superficial or flattened affect or prolonged inadequacy or irrelevance of affect
– Purposeless behavior or obvious disturbances of thinking (incoherent speech with inconsistent presentation)
– The presence of hallucinations or delusional phenomena is not pathognomonic

Current and prognosis of hebephrenia:
– Often develops gradually in adolescence
– In the case of the malignant form of juvenile schizophrenia, the course is chronic, progressive (flattening of the affect and reduction of stimuli, “gradual extinction”), sometimes with short-term remissions. The prognosis is serious, unfavorable

Psychosis of pregnancy

Psychosis of pregnancy

Psychosis of pregnancy, postpartum and lactation period. Psychosis during pregnancy is a rare phenomenon, psychosis of the postpartum period is found 10 times more often than in any other period of life (especially on the 1st and 2nd postnatal week)
– there are, above all, depressive, as well as schizophrenia-like and schizoaffective pictures of symptoms
– the prognosis is usually favorable – treatment: depending on the prevailing clinical picture – antidepressants or antipsychotics

Induced delirium (folie a deux, “induced insanity”)
– taking on the delusion of one of the patients living in the immediate environment, with whom there is a close emotional connection. As a rule, the mental illness of such a patient is schizophrenia.
– delusions can disappear after parting with this patient. The content of such representations are often delusions of persecution and delusions of grandeur.

Differential diagnosis: first of all, schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis and affective psychosis.

Treatment of delusional and psychotic disorders of inorganic genesis is carried out by means of neuroleptics, habitat change and supportive psychotherapy.

The course of delusional and psychotic disorders of inorganic origin is either short-term, with a good response to therapy and a favorable prognosis, or long-term, fluctuating, with a tendency to chronicity.

Delusional disorders of inorganic genesis – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Delusional disorders of inorganic genesis – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Definition of delusional and psychotic disorders of inorganic origin. Along with schizophrenia, the following psychotic disorders are also included in ICD-10:
– Schizotypal disorder (F21)
– Chronic delusional disorder (F22)
– Acute and transient psychotic disorders (F23), reactive psychoses, cycloid psychoses (Leonhard)
– Induced delusional disorder (F24) Main symptoms of delusional and psychotic disorders of inorganic origin:

Schizotypal disorder: patients for more than 2 years show inadequate affect, strange eccentric behavior, social isolation, unusual ideas / magical thinking, mistrust, thought disorders, transient quasi-psychotic episodes

Acute and transient psychotic disorders: maximum duration 3 months. The main forms are:
– acute psychotic disorders with symptoms of schizophrenia: acute onset of the disease with the development of psychotic symptoms in a period of time from several days to several weeks
– The clinical picture corresponds to schizophrenia, however, the preservation of symptoms is less than 1 month. – acute polymorphic psychotic disorder: very dramatically changing, having different manifestations of hallucinations, delusions and perception disorders; In addition, affective symptoms are often observed: emotional excitement with passing feelings of happiness and ecstasy, or fear and irritability. Sudden onset (within 48 hours) and fast recovery

Short reactive psychosis (“emotional psychosis”): the psychosis is caused by an acute stress event. Typical is an acute onset, as well as traceless disappearance. There are several days between the appearance of the psychosis and the traumatic event, the content of the psychosis associated with the load that caused it. Important: Diagnosis requires a connection with a stressful event / traumatic situation.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease – synonyms, diagnosis, treatment

Definition of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Subacute spongy encephalopathy (related to the disease kuru, scrapie, bovine spongy encephalopathy = BSE, “mad cow disease”), “prion disease”

Epidemiology of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Incidence is 0.8 per 1 million people.

Etiopathogenesis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:
– Slow virus (prion)
– Theory of prions: a prion gene on chromosome 20
– 15% – familial form, 85% – sporadic form
– Iatrogenic (“infectious protein”): instrumental skid, during transplantation of the membrane or cornea or treatment using growth hormone

The main symptoms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Rapidly progressing dementia with movement disorders

Diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease:
– ICD-10 Dementia in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (F02.1)
– Rapidly progressing dementia
– Pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, aphasia
– Typical pathological changes in EEG: three-phase waves
– Markers: neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the presence of the protein P130 and P131

Treatment. Symptomatic
Forecast. Fatal over a short period of time